Outcome of Copper Incorporation in the Photocatalytic Activity of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles

JASEM Front Page
Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles doped with different wt. % of copper have been prepared by means of chemically controlled co-precipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared samples revealed the formation of single phase polycrystalline face centered cubic (Fm 3m) CdO structure even after doping with Cu2+. Initially the crystallinity of CdO was improved on Cu doping, however, with the increase of dopant concentration, a change in lattice constant was noticed. Amorphization and/or composite formation were not observed for the present level of doping. The metal oxide phase formation was again established from its Cd-O stretching band at about 460 cm−1 and by the broad band with poor resolved shoulders at about 580 and 1000 cm−1 in the infrared spectra. Inclusion of Cu2+ in the CdO lattice was further ascertained from slight shift in peak positions and changes in its width. Raman spectral bands in pure and intentionally doped CdO around 70 and 260 cm-1 can be attributed to the LA-TA or LO-TO and TA+TO modes at the L-point of Brillouin zone respectively. The shift in the prominent bands and change in the Raman profile evidently proved the replacement of Cu2+ in the place of Cd2+. The photocatalytic activity of pure and doped CdO were tested for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous medium under visible light. Copper doped CdO exhibited substantially higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity and the percentage of color abatement in the aqueous solution for 5 hours was good for the samples calcined at 400oC (71% for pure CdO, 79% for 1% Cu doped CdO and 72% for 2% Cu doped CdO). The degradation rate of methylene blue followed the pseudo-first order kinetics and the rate constant obtained (0.3 to 0.7 hr-1), proved the pure and Cu doped CdO nanoparticles as the best photo catalyst for the removal of color from textile waste water.

Keywords: FT-IR, FT-Raman, Nanoparticles, Photocatalytic, XRD


  1. Z. Zhao, D. L. Morel, C. S. Ferekides, Thin Solid Films 413 (2002) 203.
  2. M. Yan, M. Lane, C. R. Kannewurf, R. P. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (2001) 02342.
  3. B. Sahin, Y. Gulen, F. Bayansal, H. A. Cetinkara, H. S. Guder, Superlattices Microstruct. 65 (2014) 56–63.
  4. D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Perez, O. Jimenez-Sandoval, S. Jimenez-Sandoval, G. Torres- Delgado, C. I. Zuniga-Romero, Thin Solid Films 371 (2000) 105.
  5. Z. Zhao, D. L. Morel, C. S. Ferekides, 2002. Thin Solid Films 413, 203.
  6. A. J. Freeman, K. R. Poeppelmeier, T. O. Mason, R. P. H. Chang, T. J. Marks, 2000. Mater. Res. Soc. Bull.25, 45.
  7. R. Maity, K. K. Chattopadhyay, 2006. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 597.
  8. S. Shu, Y. Yang, J. E. Medvedova, J. R. Ireland, A. W. Metz, J. Ni, C. R. Kannewurf, A. J. Freeman, T. J. Tobin, 2004. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13787.
  9. Yang, Yu., S. J. Shu, J. E. Medvedeva, J. R. Ireland, A. W. Metz, Jun, Ni, M. C. Hersam, A. J. Freeman, T. J. Marks, 2005. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8796.
  10. G. Singh, I.P.S. Kapoor, R. Dubey, P. Srivastava, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176 (2011) 121.
  11. A.S. Kamble, R.C. Pawar, N.L. Tarwal, L.D. More, P.S. Patil, Mater. Lett. 65 (2011) 488.
  12. J. B. Raoof, Ojani, and A. Kiani, J. Electroanal. Chem. 515 (2000) 45.
  13. Li Hui, Zhang Yongzhe, Pan Xiaojun, Zhang Hongliang, Wang Tao, Xie Erqing, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11 (2009) 917–921
  14. M. Vigneshwaran, R. Chandiramouli, B.G. Jeyaprakash, D. Balamurugan, J. Appl. Sci. 12 (2012) 1754.
  15. V. Ramasam, K. Praba, G. Murugadoss, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 96 (2012) 963.
  16. K. Gurumurugan, D. Mangalaraj, S.K. Narayandass, J. Electron. Matter. 25 (1996) 765.
  17. M. Ristic, S. Popovic, S. Music, Mater. Lett. 58 (2004) 2494.
  18. R. Cusco, J. lbanez, N. D. Amador, L. Artus, J. Z. Perez, and V. M. Sanjose, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063519 (2010).
  19. R. Oliva, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, R. Cusco, J. Zuniga-Perez, and V. Munoz-Sanjose, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 053514 (2013).